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41 W. Kaley St. Orlando, FL 32806
T: 407.843.6645
F: 407.843.4519

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9430 Turkey Lake Rd. Orlando, FL 32819
T: 407.352.8151
F: 407.351.5327

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Urogenital System Cancers

Testicular Cancer  |  Bladder Cancer  |
Kidney Cancer  |  Prostate Cancer


Testicular Cancer

Testicular cancer develops in the testicles, which are located inside the scrotum. The scrotum is the bag of skin behind the penis that contains the testicles, and other structures that create, store and carry sperm and male sex hormones. Testicular cancer is rare compared to other types of cancer. Typically, it is more common among males between ages 15 and 34. White males are more likely to develop this cancer than black males. Generally testicular cancer develops in one testicle.

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

  • A dull ache in the groin or abdomen
  • A heavy feeling in the scrotum
  • A sudden accumulation of fluid in the scrotum
  • Pain in the scrotum or a testicle
  • An enlargement or lump in a testicle
  • Tender or enlarged breasts

Contact your urologist if you notice swelling, pain or lumps in a testicle or your groin area, especially if you experience these symptoms for more than two weeks. Schedule an appointment even if the lump is not painful.

Doctors are unsure what causes testicular cancer, but you are at a higher risk for developing the condition if you have a testicle that did not descend into the scrotum before birth or if the testicles developed abnormally. A family history of this condition and age may also put one at a higher risk. Testicular cancer affects teens and younger men between the ages of 15 and 34; however it can develop at any age.

Treatment Options

Treatment options for the cancer vary depending on the type and stage of the cancer, your overall health and your own preferences for care. Treatment options include surgery to remove the affected testicle, radiation therapy or chemotherapy.

There is no way to prevent cancer. Self-examination is key. Testicular cancer is very much treatable when diagnosed early.

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Bladder Cancer

Your bladder is a balloon-shaped organ responsible for storing urine. Cancer of the bladder often beings with cells that line the inside of the bladder. Bladder cancer can occur at any age, but it typically affects older adults.

When diagnosed in an early stage, bladder cancer is highly treatable, yet bladder cancer is prone to reoccur. A bladder cancer survivor will need to undergo follow-up tests to check for the reappearance of cancer. You doctor will evaluate your individual case, but will most likely recommend a screening of the inside of your urethra and bladder every three to six months for the first five years after the occurrence of bladder cancer. At that point, it is still recommended that you undergo an annual cystoscopy.

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

  • Blood in the urine
  • Darker than normal urine
  • Pain when urinating
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Back pain
  • Abdominal Pain

Stages of Bladder Cancer

  • Stage I
    During stage one, the cancer remains in the lining of the bladder and has not progressed inside the muscular wall of the bladder. Early detection during stage one gives a patient the best chance of survival.
  • Stage II
    During stage two, your cancer has invaded the bladder wall, yet it has not spread outside the bladder and is still confined.
  • Stage III
    During stage three, cancer cells have spread outside the bladder to surrounding tissue. In men, this often means spreading to the prostate, and, in women, it can mean spreading to the uterus or vagina.
  • Stage IV
    During stage four, cancer cells have spread far beyond the bladder walls and have invaded the lymph nodes and other vital organs, such as the liver, the lungs, etc.

Treatment Options

  • Surgical procedures
  • Biological therapy
  • Immunotherapy drugs
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation therapy

Your treatment options will be determined on an individual basis, depending on what stage your cancer is in when it is detected. Procedures available to you may also be determined by other factors, such as your overall health.

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Kidney Cancer

Kidney cancer originates in the kidneys, the bean-shaped organs located on opposite sides of your spine. Many kidney cancers are detected during procedures for other diseases or condition because signs and symptoms typically do not show up in the earlier stages of kidney cancer.

Kidney cancer is typically symptom free in its earlier stages. However, symptoms in the later stages can include several warning signs.

Symptoms of Kidney Cancer

  • Back pain
  • Blood in the urine
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling of the legs
  • Lump in the abdomen
  • Rapid, unexplained weight loss

Kidney cancer is diagnosed through a series of tests such as blood, urine, imaging, ultrasound and biopsy. Biopsy is generally avoided when possible, since the first line of defense against kidney cancer is removal surgery. Additional CT scans may be required post diagnosis in order to determine what stage your cancer is in.

Stages of Kidney Cancer

  • Stage I
    During stage one, the tumor remains confided to the kidney.
  • Stage II
    During stage two, the tumor has grown larger than in stage one, but it still has not spread beyond the kidney.
  • Stage III
    During stage three, the cancer has expanded beyond the kidney and invaded the surrounding tissues, glands or lymph nodes.
  • Stage IV
    During stage four, cancer cells have spread far beyond the kidneys and have invaded the lymph nodes and other vital organs, such as the liver, the brain, the lungs, etc.

Your treatment options will be determined on an individual basis, depending on what stage your cancer is in when it is detected. Procedures available to you may also be determined by other factors, such as your overall health.

Treatment Options

  • Cancer removal surgery
  • Removal of affected kidney
  • Treatment to freeze cancer cells
  • Embolization
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Chemotherapy

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ProstateCancer

The prostate is the male reproductive gland that surrounds the urethra and produces the fluid that carries sperm. Prostate cancer originates in a man’s prostate. Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Prostate cancer is treated fairly easily when it is discovered early and remains confined to the prostate gland. Signs or symptoms, however, may not become noticeable until the more advanced stages.

The risk of prostate cancer increases with age. Prostate cancer is most common in men over 65. For this reason, it is important that men speak with their doctors about having regular prostate screenings. Most prostate cancer is discovered through routine screening.

Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

  • Trouble urinating
  • Increased urge to urinate
  • Decreased urine flow
  • Blood in the urine
  • Discomfort in the pelvic region

The more aggressive the form of prostate cancer is, the more quickly it will spread. Your doctor will grade your cancer to determine how many cancerous cells are present as opposed to healthy cells, which will determine how aggressive the cancer is.

Stages of Prostate Cancer

  • Stage I
    During stage one, the cancer remains confined to the prostate gland in a microscopic area that the doctor can’t feel.
  • Stage II
    During stage two, the tumor has grown larger than in stage one and can now be felt by your doctor, but it still has not spread beyond the prostate gland.
  • Stage III During stage three, the cancer has expanded beyond the prostate gland into nearby tissue.
  • Stage IV
    During stage four, cancer cells have spread beyond the prostate to other vital organs.

Your treatment options will be determined on an individual basis, depending on what stage your cancer is in when it is detected. Procedures available to you may also be determined by other factors, such as your overall health.

Treatment Options

  • Watchful surveillance (because some cases never require treatment)
  • Surgery
  • Cryosurgery
  • Prostatectomy
  • Ultrasound treatment
  • Radiation therapy
  • Hormone therapy
  • Chemotherapy

As with most forms of cancer, the chance of survival associated with prostate cancer depends on what stage the cancer is in when it is detected, how aggressive the cancer proves to be and which treatment options your overall health permit you to try.

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